Thalassemia is an inherited disorder of the blood. There are different types which vary from a mild condition with no symptoms to a severe and particular form of anemia in which the body cannot produce enough healthy red cells.
Because it is red blood cells which carry oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body, a shortage of these cells means that the body is deprived of oxygen. Proper treatment includes routine blood transfusions and other therapies.
Thalassemia is prevalent worldwide but more common in those of Southeast Asian, Chinese, or Mediterranean ancestry. 
How does it affect the child?
Most children with Thalassemia seem healthy for the first few months of their life but by six months they grow easily tired, listless, fussy and pale. They have little appetite and suffer from many infections. Their overall growth and development is slow. This is because they are not getting enough oxygen.